Known Good Die (KGD) socket

Projects using Known Good Die (KGD)

Particle Interconnect - Hughes Aircraft 1988 joint venture in Known-Good-Die

Resulting in a supercomputer assembled with Known-Good-Die in 2" x 4" x .1".

Science/Scope 1989 Hughes Aircraft Company:

"A new technique for packaging large-scale integrated circuit (IC) chips will permit much denser packaging on the substrate than previously possible. High-density multichip interconnect (HDMI) technology, being developed by Hughes, is designed to meet the needs of the next generation of VHSIC II hybrid circuits, which require dense packaging with no signal degradation at frequencies over 100 MHz. HDMI packaging achieves these results using a multi-layer substrate, a polymer dielectric highly suited to fine line metallization processing, and lithography techniques capable of producing 10-micron line widths. The technology is expected to be used in radar, sensing, tracking and guidance programs."

"The Data Memory Structure (DMS) multichip module is a very high speed cache memory system, switchable at high speed, to either of 3 input or output ports."

"HDMI can accommodate six 129K gate arrays (.640x.640 mil/die, 550+ pads/die; total 750,000 gates and 3,300 pads), 52 capacitors, and 24 - 15 nsec SRAM (32+ pads/die; total 750+), interconnected (using 70+ mil wire bond alleys) on a 2" x 4" = 8 in2 substrate having 368 I/O's."

"Performance of high speed circuits is also enhanced with low K polyimide dielectric used in the HDMI multilayer thin film (solder sealed ceramic leaded package) structure."

(All components tested/burned-in/speed sorted using PI resulting in 15+% yield improvement over production parts. Die price set at $5,000@ x 6 = $30,000, therefore DMS price >$100,000@)

PI's proposed removable die MCM-L/D/C to Hughes Aircraft.

Proposed to purchased a wafer for a total of $1,000 which was comprised of 300 die (5K gates/die .275 x .275 in.2/die, 180 pads/die for a total of 1,500,000 gates and 54,000 pads) interconnected on a 4" x 6" = 24 in.2 substrate. 50 mil pitch array yielded up to 9,600 I/O's.

Cost is further reduced by common low K polyimide multilayer PCB using 6+ mil pitch traces.

Environmental sealing of each die would also produce better reliability and upgradeability.

Particle Interconnect - Hughes 1989 Fire Finder MCM

Particle Interconnect - Hughes Aircraft 1988 - 1989

50,000 die joint production test venture.

Before burned-in:

50x bumped chip before pressing against PI gold thick film. 500x bump before contacting PI.

After burned-in:

50x bumped chip after pressing against PI gold thick film metal matrix with 1 gm/mil2 load. 500x bump after contacting PI, metal matrix is on bump.

Particle Interconnect - Hughes environmental test die

Particle Interconnect removable MCM die socket.

100% of 500 die lot survived 4x Mil-Std-883C.

  1. Particle Interconnect with both adhesive and mechanical hold-down of chips while accumulating 4 runs of:
    • 168 hours (672 hours total) 125 ° C for burn-in (other test passed are continuous 125 ° C),
    • 500 cycles (2,000 cycles total) -55 to +125 ° C fast ramp MIL-STD-883C shock test,
    • 24 hours (96 hours total) in salt/fog corrosion test,
    • 24 hours (96 hours total) HAST (Highly Accelerated Stress Testing) pressure chamber (30 psi, +125 ° C pressure pot),
    • Results in 50,000 die lot test prior to transfer into production.
  2. 96/4 Pb/Sn reflowed plated bump to spherize with special passivation configuration.
  3. Die orientated same as CAD picture for clarity (see: Removable die MCM - L/D/C).
  4. Note contact resistance test pads on left edge.
  5. Note traces for passivation crack detection.
  6. Note temperature sensors in center of die.
  7. Note traces for edge crack detection.
  8. Note traces for die heating.
  9. Note Particle Interconnect imprint.

Particle Interconnect - MMS - TI - HP bare die probe

Proof of removable Known-Good-Die. Note single layer of particle on pad.

IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, And Manufacturing Technology

A Bare-Chip Probe for High I/O, High Speed Testing

Alan Barber, Keunmyung Lee, and Hannsjorg Obermaier


Particle Interconnect - Sandia Lab mBGA KGD packaging solution

For Multichip Modules and Chip On Board.

Particle Interconnect - Sandia Lab Known Good Die (KGD)

Known-Good-Die probe/burn-in. Proof of removable die MCM-L/D/C.

0 failures, 11 runs shown above. Particle Interconnect surface mount BGA socket.
Particle Interconnect - Sandia mBGA interposer schematic. Sandia mBGA interposer


Multi-Chip Packaging Systems Pose New Test Challenges for the Industry

Chip Scale Review Online

April 2003


Early stacked CSPs were rather simple affairs aimed at cell phones and personal electronics. As multi-chip packaging extends into critical applications, test requirements are becoming more demanding.

The known-good die (KGD) problems that plagued MCMs a decade ago have resurfaced with increasingly complex system-in-package configurations. Whether in wafer-level or bare-die form, the chips must be tested for speed and reliability before assembly in the more complex systems.


The Promise of Known-good-die Technologies

Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Multichip Modules, 1994

Barbara Vasquez & Scott Lindsey